Tips On Detecting Early Macular Degeneration}

Tips on detecting early macular degeneration


Susan Slobac

Having Regular Eye Examinations is Key to Detecting Early Macular Degeneration

Living with low vision is a concern for many, especially those age fifty and over. One of the types of eye vision problems often associated with people in this age range is age related macular degeneration. A degenerative condition of the macula, which is located at the back of the retina in the eye, age related macular degeneration can leave the patient with low vision suitable for reading, driving and other close-up work where detail vision is required.

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Your ophthalmologist is your best resource for detecting early macular degeneration. He or she can then offer you preferred macular degeneration treatment options, as well as a full range of eye glasses for macular degeneration, low vision magnifiers, and other aids to help you see better and live a full and active life.

What Procedures Will My Doctor Use for Detecting Early Macular Degeneration?

The first step your physician will take is to ask you if you are experiencing any symptoms associated with macular degeneration. Symptoms can include blurry vision in the central vision field or portions of the vision that are missing, as well as straight lines appearing wavy, an inability to detect color variations between two dark or two light colors, and a long recovery time after you have been out in bright light.

When detecting early macular degeneration, your doctor will also want to determine how at risk you are for developing age related macular degeneration. Age is a factor; most people with macular degeneration are age fifty and over, although on occasion it will affect children. Those with a family history of the disease are also at a greater risk for developing it as well. Some individuals have a gene that puts them at risk. People who are obese, eat a high fat diet and suffer from high blood pressure stand a greater chance of developing macular degeneration, as do Caucasians.

What vision aids are available?

After detecting early macular degeneration, your physician will provide you with the best options for treatment. They could include the use of low vision magnifiers, as well as specialized eye glasses for macular degeneration.

Magnifiers can be as simple as a hand-held device all the way up to lenses that clip over your glasses, so that you can use them for detail vision when needed, and then flip them out of the way when you do not need them. Specialized eye glasses with tiny microscopes allow you to have a very magnified central vision area, yet they are placed on your regular prescription glasses, so that you can look under the microscopes when you want to see through the other lenses, working in much the same way as bifocal lenses do. Your physician can determine if you are showing signs of early macular degeneration and provide you with the best treatment options and vision aids.

Susan Slobac has had a parent diagnosed with macular degeneration. She has had experience in macular degeneration treatment. In this article, she discusses

macular degeneration

risk factors.

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Tips on detecting early macular degeneration


Mitral Valve Surgery In India At Mumbai And Delhi At Low Cost.}

Submitted by: P Nagpal Nagpal

Mitral Valve Disease Repair and Replacement in India

What Is Mitral Valve Disease

Mitral Valve Stenosis

Mitral Valve Regurgitation

Diagnosis of Mitral Valve Disease

Treatment of Mitral Valve Disease

Surgery for Mitral Valve Disease

Surgery to Treat Mitral Regurgitation

Surgery to Treat Mitral Valve Stenosis

What Is Mitral Valve Disease

Heart Specialists at We Care partner hospitals in India are among the most experienced in the country in treating mitral valve disease, evaluating thousands of patients each year. Patients benefit from our partner hospitals state-of-the-art facilities, leading-edge medical treatment, and access to clinical trials and new treatments for the disease.

Heart surgeons in India are renowned for their experience and expertise in repairing and replacement of mitral heart valves. In some cases, surgery can be done with minimally invasive techniques, including robot-assisted surgery, that can result in significantly less pain and recovery time for patients.

Mitral Valve Stenosis

Mitral valve stenosis, (mitral stenosis) is a narrowing of the mitral valve. With narrowing, the valve does not open properly and obstructs blood flow between the left chambers of the heart.

Mitral Valve Replacement Surgery, Mitral Valve Repair India

[ Mitral Valve Stenosis ]

If not treated, mitral stenosis can weaken the heart, lead to heart failure or heart enlargement, and cause irregular heartbeats. Other potentially serious complications can include stroke, heart infection, pulmonary edema (water on the lungs) and blood clots.

Within a few days, a team of heart valve disease specialists at from We Care coordinates the patient’s care to provide a complete examination, diagnosis and extensive patient education. These specialists see patients ranging from those who might want to have a heart murmur checked, to those who have been told they have advanced mitral heart valve disease.

If surgery is indicated, a cardiac surgeon meets with the patient to thoroughly discuss surgical options and, in most cases, can perform the surgery the following day – depending on the patient’s preference.

Symptoms of Mitral Valve Stenosis : –

Signs and symptoms of mitral stenosis depend on how severely and quickly the condition develops. Some people never develop symptoms

Some have mild problems that suddenly get worse. Signs and symptoms of mitral stenosis include : –

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Shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion (exercise) or when the person lies down

Fatigue, especially during increased activity

Swollen feet or ankles

Heart palpitations – sensations of a rapid, fluttering heartbeat

Dizziness or fainting spells

Frequent respiratory infections, such as bronchitis

Heavy coughing, sometimes with blood-tinged sputum

Rarely, chest discomfort or chest pain

Causes of Mitral Valve Stenosis : –

The mitral valve can narrow because of conditions that include : –

Rheumatic fever : – In some people, the body’s response to the strep throat infection leads to mitral valve damage that causes the valve to become inflamed, thicken, and leak (mitral regurgitation). This inflammatory process can cause the valve to fuse and harden, resulting in mitral stenosis. People who have had rheumatic fever may have both mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation.

Congenital heart defect : – Some infants are born with a narrowed mitral valve and develop mitral stenosis early in life. Babies born with this problem usually require heart surgery to fix the valve. Others are born with a malformed mitral valve and have a risk of developing mitral stenosis when they’re older.

Mitral Valve Regurgitation

Mitral valve regurgitation, or mitral regurgitation, occurs when the mitral valve doesn’t close tightly and blood flows backward in the heart. Mitral regurgitation from mitral valve prolapse is the most common reason for surgical treatment. If not treated, mitral valve regurgitation can lead to congestive heart failure. Treatment depends on the severity of regurgitation, how far mitral valve disease has progressed, and signs and symptoms of the disease.

Symptoms of Mitral Valve Regurgitation

Signs and symptoms of mitral regurgitation depend on how severely and quickly the condition develops. Most often, mitral regurgitation is mild, and severe mitral regurgitation develops slowly. If no symptoms develop for decades, the patient may not know the condition is present.

Signs and symptoms can develop gradually because, for some time, the heart can compensate for the defect. The first notable sign is usually an abnormal sound, or heart murmur. Sometimes, however, the disorder develops quickly, and the patient may experience the abrupt onset of more severe signs and symptoms.

Indicators of mitral regurgitation include : –

Shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion or when the person lies down

Fatigue, especially during increased activity

Cough, especially at night or when lying down

Awakening at night with shortness of breath

Heart palpitations – sensations of a rapid, fluttering heartbeat

Swollen feet or ankles

Causes of Mitral Valve Regurgitation

Any condition that damages the mitral valve can cause regurgitation, including : –

Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral regurgitation from mitral valve prolapse is the most common reason for surgical treatment. Mitral valve prolapse occurs when the leaflets and supporting cords of the mitral valve have excess tissue, and they weaken. With each contraction of the left ventricle, the valve leaflets bulge (prolapse) into the left atrium. This common heart defect may prevent the mitral valve from closing tightly and lead to regurgitation. Mitral valve prolapse is common. Many who have it never develop severe regurgitation.

Damaged cords

Mitral regurgitation may result from damage to the cords that anchor the flaps of the mitral valve to the heart wall. Over time, these cords may stretch or suddenly tear, especially in people who have mitral valve prolapse. A sudden tear can cause substantial leakage through the mitral valve. Repair may involve emergency heart surgery.

Deterioration of the valve with age

The mitral valve opens and shuts tens of thousands of times a day. Age-related wear and tear on the valve can lead to mitral regurgitation. Our partner hospitals have extensive experience in successfully treating elderly patients who have mitral regurgitation.

Prior heart attack

A heart attack can damage the area of the heart muscle that supports the mitral valve, affecting the function of the valve. If the damage is extensive enough, a heart attack may result in sudden and severe mitral regurgitation.


The mitral valve can be damaged by endocarditis -an infection inside the heart that can involve the heart valves. Read more about endocarditis prevention.

Congenital heart defect

Some infants are born with defects in their heart, including a leaking mitral valve.

Diagnosis of Mitral Valve Disease

Diagnosis begins with a complete physical examination by a team of heart specialists. Patients will be asked about their general health, including signs and symptoms of potential problems, and whether their family has a history of heart disease. Tests listed below may be used to determine the possible cause of a heart valve defect, the severity of the problem, and whether the mitral valve must be surgically repaired or replaced. Specialists trained and experienced in the various diagnostic procedures perform these tests.

hest X-ray

An X-ray image of the chest shows the physician the size and shape of the heart and whether the heart’s left atrium (upper left chamber) and/or left ventricle (lower left chamber) are enlarged – a possible sign of a damaged mitral valve. By viewing a chest X-ray, the physician can also evaluate the lungs. A damaged mitral valve may result in blood backing up into the lungs. Congestion is visible on an X-ray.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

An ECG provides information about heart rhythm and, indirectly, heart size. With mitral valve disease, the heart’s left atrium (upper left chamber) and left ventricle (lower left chamber) may be enlarged, and heart rhythms may be irregular (arrhythmias).

Echocardiogram (Doppler Echocardiogram)

Sound waves produce detailed images of the patient’s heart. Transmitted through a wandlike device (transducer) held on the patient’s chest, sound waves bounce off the heart and are reflected back through the chest wall. The sound waves are processed to produce video images of the heart and a close look at the mitral valve. A Doppler echocardiogram may be used to measure the volume of blood flowing backward through the mitral valve.

Transesophageal Echocardiogram

During this test, somewhat similar to an echocardiogram, a tiny transducer (sound device) is inserted into the mouth and down the esophagus, which extends behind the heart. This test provides an even more detailed image of the mitral valve and blood flow through the valve.

Exercise Tests

Different exercise tests can help measure the patient’s tolerance for activity and check the heart’s response to physical exertion (exercise).

Cardiac Catheterization

A thin tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the patient’s arm or groin and threaded up to the heart. The catheter is used to deliver dye into the heart chambers and heart blood vessels. The dye, appearing on X-ray images as it moves through the heart, shows physicians detailed information about the heart and heart valves.

Computed Tomography (CT)

A CT scan uses a series of X-rays to create a detailed image.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

An MRI uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create a detailed image.

Holter Monito

A patient wears this portable device to record a continuous ECG, usually for 24 to 72 hours. Holter monitoring is used to detect intermittent heart rhythm irregularities that may be associated with mitral valve disease.

Electrophysiology (EP)

For patients with irregular heart beats, We Care partner hospitals provide electrophysiology assessments. These tests are performed by electrophysiologists and cardiologists trained in the diagnosis and treatment of heart rhythm disorders, including those caused by heart valve defects. We Care partner hospitals in India have the latest technology to analyze and record heart rhythms. Other tests at We Care partner hospitals in India use nuclear medicine (radioactive materials) for detailed imaging and advanced analysis of the heart and heart valves.

About the Author: Pankaj Nagpal – About the Author: Welcome to World Class Treatment and Surgery by We Care Health Services, India. Contact Us : www.indiahospital

|| E-mail us on : || Contact Center Tel. :(+91) 9029304141. The surgery and medical treatments offered by We Care Health Services at JCI Accredited / ISO Certified Hospitals are vast and varied; ranging from Heart Surgery in India, Cardiology to Cardio Thoracic surgery, Total Knee / Hip / Ankle / Shoulder Joint Replacement Surgery in India including ACL reconstruction Surgery to Birmingham Hip Resurfacing Surgery in India , Spine Surgery in India like Discectomy / Laminectomy Surgery, Cervical Decompression to Anterior / Posterior Spinal Fusion Surgery in India, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, Cancer surgery, Sterotactic Radiotherapy, Autologous / Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant Surgery to Breast Cancer treatments, Near relative Kidney Transplant Surgery to Dialysis and Kidney Biopsy, Low Cost Liver Transplants Surgery, Hysterectomy (Vaginal / Abdominal) to Ovarian Cystectomy, Hernia repair Surgery to Cholecystectomy, Advanced Neurosurgery in India, Bariatric surgery, Gastric Bypass Surgery in India, Eye Surgery in India, Cornea Transplant, Cataract Surgery to LASIK Eye care Surgery, IVF, ICSI, Egg Donor to Surrogacy, Minimally Invasive surgery or Laparoscopic Surgery to Cochlear Implants, Breast Lift / Tummy Tuck, Face Lift to Low Cost Rhinoplasty Cosmetic Surgery, multi specialty Hospitals in India offering first world treatments with board certified highly qualified medical consultants in attendance at third world prices..


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