Expectations From The Web Development Company In India

Submitted by: Sushri Biswal

The growing segmentation of the marketplace between two different extremes i.e. products and customer needs has made it utmost important for businesses to do something really different in order to stabilize their market position.

Intense and fierce competition has made even the innovative and leading companies to rethink about maintaining their sustainability in the niche. They cannot merely sit relaxingly in the middle anymore. In order to drive this sustainability and profitable organic growth, businesses have to take the assistance of only an accredited and experienced web development company.

The niche is flooded with numerous of service providers, but you need to take a wise decision prior choosing the one. Keeping in mind the intensity of the growing competition the web development company will have to act as the custodian of the business the moment the project is handed over to them.

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These days everybody thinks of standing ahead in the crowd. Hence, the organisations always think of approaching a company that can help them attaining their business goals and objectives. They will only go ahead with companies which can truly accept the challenges and goals of the organization as its own goals and challenges. Since, this is way the business houses can climb up the success ladder. Most importantly nobody actually wants to be the part of a sinking ship. In simple terms, we can say that the company (web development) pave the path of success for others, which itself is not that much promising.

Therefore, before you think of choosing any web development company in India always try to cross the credibility of the service provider through its credentials. Secondly, try to sit with their team and discuss your business goals and objectives in order to ascertain the core potential of the employees. Since, these will be key factors which will help you in knowing the quality and way of their working.

You can even run a check over the project already delivered by the service provider. Through this you will get a clear idea about type of work they have already delivered to their other clients.

Taking the support of any web development company is a wise decision as there are many software and hardware components of a website that need an expert attention and support. Make sure that you choose a company which provides an extensive customer support and maintenance services on the website they have designed for your business.

The next most important thing that you need to take care of is the on-time delivery of your web project. You again have to do check on the track record of the service provider as well. Since, no point in going ahead with a web development company that provides quality work, do not deliver the work within a stipulated time frame. There are many other criterions with which you need to deal later on. But, if the website designing and development part will occupy lot of time, then when you will be dealing with the other important criterions.

Hence, you should always do a complete and thorough background check about the service provider prior choosing anyone out.

About the Author: Looking out for tailor made business branding solutions in India, which can actually enhance your return on investment, then Web Development Company is always there to help you out in the same.




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Getting Ready For The Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales Specialist Exam 700 037

Submitted by: Jennifer E. Devine

The 700-037 exam holds the certificate for the Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales Specialist, which is taken online from the potential candidates. The passing candidates become eligible for the certification.

The Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales Specialist is very helpful in getting you to the desired job of yours and to land you in the best IT companies in the world as the expert in the field. All you have to do is to pass the exam 700-037 Online Study. The exam like this helps in you skill building and surely increase the worth of your CV to let you have the top IT jobs in the field. There are loads of ways to prepare for the 700-037 Question you can sought them online as there are many experts who deliver the quality test papers and the learning material from where you can prepare for the exams.

These learning material and study questions are accumulated by looking on the all the past papers so that you get the idea of the questions that are involved in the paper. By passing these questions, you become able to pass the 700-037 Brain Dumps Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales Specialist certificate exam.

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Preparing for the Test

As mentioned above there are various ways through which you can pass this exam and can look for the preparatory material. There are many places that offer the 700-037 Actual Exam that can be helpful in the future for your preparation. Along with that, you can look for the 700-037 Practice Tests for the 700-037 Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales Specialist that is available online in order to get prepared of r the exam. These tests are actually made according to the syllabus and have the right kind of questions for you to prepare from. With the help of these online tests, you get the idea about the questions that might be coming in the exam and the way you should be answering any question.

Another way of passing the exam 700-037 Preparation Guides is to get the Training Kit or the test material that is available online through the experts. While having this material you can learn the tactics, through which you can pass the exam for the certification of Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales Specialist. These study material are very well written ad have the exact type of question that appear in the exam. It makes it helpful for you to prepare and the chances of passing the exam increase by many folds if you have these study materials in your hands.

Therefore, if you are looking to pass the exam for 700-037 Training Kits Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales Specialist then you need to work hard as it is a great opportunity for you to become expert in such a field and to have your hands on the best IT market jobs avail is all over the world. This is only possible if you prepare with interest and hardware along with using proper channels throughout the time.

The Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales Specialist is very helpful in getting you to the desired job of yours and to land you in the best IT companies in the world as the expert in the field. All you have to do is to pass the exam 700-037 Online Study. The exam like this helps in you skill building and surely increase the worth of your CV to let you have the top IT jobs in the field. There are loads of ways to prepare for the 700-037 Question you can sought them online as there are many experts who deliver the quality test papers and the learning material from where you can prepare for the exams.

About the Author: Examcertify is your 1st Choice for Preparation Materials regarding


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Irish inflation back on the rise

Friday, May 13, 2005 

According to new figures from the Central Statistics Office (CSO), the annual rate of inflation in Ireland has begun to rise again after a period of decline. Annualised inflation is now running at 2.2%, up from 2.1% in March.

The figures are derived from the Consumer Price Index which is monitored by the CSO. Despite the increase, inflation remains significantly below the figure for recent years. Annualised inflation peaked at 5.1% in February 2003.

The major contributor to the rise was the cost of heating and housing with the Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas and Other Fuels group rising 10.6% in the past 12 months – with 2% of that rise in the last month alone.

When broken down more the section marked Energy Products showed a massive 5.3% rise in the past month alone.

This sharp rise in energy costs was offset somewhat by decreases (over the past 12 months) in the following groups:

According to the CSO the Consumer Price Index is made up of over 55,000 prices consisting of 613 headings which cover over 1,000 different items.


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Tabletop fusion may lead to neutron source

Sunday, May 1, 2005 

A UCLA team, headed by Brian Naranjo, has observed the nuclear fusion of deuterium nuclei in a tabletop device. The device uses a lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) pyroelectric crystal to ionize deuterium atoms and accelerate the ions towards a stationary erbium deuteride (ErD) target. Fusion of two deuterium nuclei results in the emission of helium nuclei (alpha particles), neutrons and gamma rays. The team anticipates applications of the device as a tabletop neutron generator, or in “microthrusters” for space propulsion. It is possible that there may be applications related to nuclear weapons, although this possibility is not discussed in the research paper.

This development is not related to earlier claims of tabletop fusion or “cold fusion” having been observed during sonoluminescence. In fact, the leader of the team behind this development was one of the main critics of earlier low-temperature fusion claims.

This device is not the first reliable tabletop fusion device; the Farnsworth-Hirsch fusor, developed in the early 1960s in the laboratory of Philo T. Farnsworth who was instrumental in developing television, is sold commercially as a neutron source. Research by Dr. Todd Rider of MIT suggests that the kind of non-equilibrium fusion produced in these sources will never be usable as an energy source (see his PhD thesis).

Police report drug haul seizure worth up to £30 million in Brownhills, England

Monday, December 2, 2013 

Police in the West Midlands in England today said nearly 200 kilograms worth of drugs with value possibly as great as £30 million (about US$49 million or €36 million) has been seized from a unit in the town of Brownhills. In what an officer described as “one of the largest [seizures] in the force’s 39 year history”, West Midlands Police reported recovering six big cellophane-wrapped cardboard boxes containing cannabis, cocaine, and MDMA (“ecstasy”) in a police raid operation on the Maybrook Industrial Estate in the town on Wednesday.

The seized boxes, which had been loaded onto five freight pallets, contained 120 one-kilogram bags of cannabis, 50 one-kilogram bags of MDMA, and five one-kilogram bricks of cocaine. In a press release, West Midlands Police described what happened after officers found the drugs as they were being unloaded in the operation. “When officers opened the boxes they discovered a deep layer of protective foam chips beneath which the drugs were carefully layered”, the force said. “All the drugs were wrapped in thick plastic bags taped closed with the cannabis vacuum packed to prevent its distinctive pungent aroma from drawing unwanted attention.” Police moved the drugs via forklift truck to a flatbed lorry to remove them.

Detective Sergeant Carl Russell of West Midlands Police’s Force CID said the seizure was the largest he had ever made in the 24 years he has been in West Midlands Police and one of the biggest seizures the force has made since its formation in 1974. “The impact this seizure will have on drug dealing in the region and the UK as a whole cannot be underestimated”, he said. “The drugs had almost certainly been packed to order ready for shipping within Britain but possibly even further afield. Our operation will have a national effect and we are working closely with a range of law enforcement agencies to identify those involved in this crime at whatever level.”

Expert testing on the drugs is ongoing. Estimates described as “conservative” suggest the value of the drugs amounts to £10 million (about US$16.4 million or €12 million), although they could be worth as much as £30 million, subject to purity tests, police said.

Police arrested three men at the unit on suspicion of supplying a controlled drug. The men, a 50-year-old from Brownhills, a 51-year-old from the Norton area of Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire, and one aged 53 from Brownhills, have been released on bail as police investigations to “hunt those responsible” continue. West Midlands Police told Wikinews no person has yet been charged in connection with the seizure. Supplying a controlled drug is an imprisonable offence in England, although length of jail sentences vary according to the class and quantity of drugs and the significance of offenders’ roles in committing the crime.

24 error messages sent by Flight 447

Saturday, June 6, 2009 

French authorities have today revealed that Air France Flight 447 sent 24 error messages shortly before the plane disappeared during the flight between Rio de Janeiro and Paris with 228 people on board. They also said that the plane’s auto-pilot was not active, although they say that from the error messages it is impossible to determine the reason for it being inactive. The crash is said to be the world’s worst aviation disaster since 2001.

Officials have still not determined the reason for the flight’s disappearance or located the wreckage of the plane, but have said that it was flying through an area of “powerful cumulo-nimbus” clouds. The authorities continued saying, “these are found frequently in this area and in normal climactic [sic] conditions”. However other meteorologists said the jet was entering a zone with unusual storms and 100mph updrafts which could have formed a vacuum, sucking water up from the ocean.

Fourteen of the error messages sent by the system were done so within a period of one minute, 2:10 a.m. – 2:11 a.m. UTC. It is thought that some of the error messages are related to the flight speed and controls related to auto thrust. Paul-Louis Arslanian, director of the French air accident investigation agency, said that the error messages indicated systems had shut down one after another. He also confirmed that the plane in question had encountered difficulties with measuring its speed and that Airbus was currently completing “a programme of replacement, of improvement”.

Airbus and Arslanian insist that planes are still safe, however Airbus have since re-sent information regarding difficulties with calculating speed and confirming their advice in such situations.

Previous announcements by the Brazilian air force that they had successfully located part of the wreckage of flight 447 have turned out to be false after ships recovered unrelated debris from the sea. After recovering debris from the sea, including a cargo pallet and two buoys, Brigadier Ramon Cardoso, the director of Brazilian air traffic control said, “[U]p to now, no material from the plane has been recovered.”

He continued, “We confirm that the pallet found is not part of the debris of the plane. It’s a pallet that was in the area, but considered more to be trash. The pallet was made of wood, and the Air France Airbus A330 did not have any wooden pallets on board. That’s how we can confirm that the pallet isn’t part of the remains of the aircraft”. It is thought the pallet came from a passing ship which is also being blamed as to the reason for the oil slick spotted in the area.

David Learmount, operations and safety editor of Flight International magazine, said: “The fact that the autopilot was not working is not the cause of this accident”, continuing by saying it is “not at all unusual” for the autopilot to cut out, alerting the pilots with a loud warning, adding “it’s not the cause, it’s the symptom” of the accident.

He also said that it was “designed to cut out at any time that it receives conflicting messages, which we know it was” and that “It’s designed to cut out rather than controlling the airplane in an unsafe way – it’s not an intelligent system, it doesn’t know which of the data are correct.”

Rescuers have long since given up on attempting to find any survivors instead now trying to locate and recover the wreckage of the flight and more importantly the flight data recorders, without which they say they may never know what happened to the flight. The process of recovery is expected to be difficult with the seabed reaching depths of 3,000 to 4,000 meters. Both American and French specialist equipment has been sent to the area with the aim of recovering the recorders, however French officials say that the locator beacons attached to the boxes could possibly have become detached by the force of the impact.

Speculation has been rife as to the thought cause of the flights disappearance, ranging from a direct lightning strike to weather in the area, however recently a Spanish pilot has said, via his airline Air Comet, that on a flight in the area he saw an “intense flash of white light”. The report, initially released by the Spanish newspaper El Mundo and then confirmed by AFP also said a co-pilot and passenger also saw the bright light.

“Suddenly, we saw in the distance a strong and intense flash of white light, which followed a descending and vertical trajectory and which broke up in six seconds” the unidentified captain said.

Amazon Kindle

The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-book readers designed and marketed by Amazon.com. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to shop for, download, browse, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines, blogs, and other digital media via wireless networking.[2] The hardware platform, developed by Amazon.com subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device and now comprises a range of devices, including dedicated e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays, and Android-based tablets with color LCD screens.

The Kindle name was devised by branding consultant Michael Cronan who was asked by Lab 126 to name the product. Cronan and partner Karin Hibma suggested Kindle, meaning to light a fire.[3] They felt this was an apt metaphor for reading and intellectual excitement.[4]

Kindle hardware has evolved from the original Kindle introduced in 2007 and a Kindle DX line (with a larger screen) introduced in 2009. The range now includes devices with a keyboard (Kindle Keyboard), devices with touch-sensitive screens (Kindle Paperwhite), a tablet computer with a reader app and a color display (Kindle Fire), and a low-priced model with an on-screen keyboard (Kindle).

Amazon has also introduced Kindle software for use on various devices and platforms, including Microsoft Windows, iOS, BlackBerry, Mac OS X (10.5 or later, Intel processor only), Android, webOS, and Windows Phone.[5] Amazon also has a “cloud” reader to allow users to read and purchase Kindle books from a web browser.

Content for the Kindle can be purchased online and downloaded wirelessly in some countries, using either standard Wi-Fi or Amazon’s 3G “Whispernet” network.[6] Whispernet is accessible without any monthly fee or wireless subscription,[7] although fees can be incurred for the delivery of periodicals and other content when roaming internationally beyond the customer’s home country. Through a service called “Whispersync,” customers can synchronize reading progress, bookmarks, and other information across Kindle hardware and other mobile devices.[8][9]

In the last three months of 2010, Amazon announced that in the United States, their e-book sales had surpassed sales of paperback books for the first time.[10]

Amazon released the Kindle, the first generation Kindle device[11] on November 19, 2007, for US$399. It sold out in five and a half hours.[12] The device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008.[13]

It is the only Kindle with expandable memory, via an SD card slot.

The device features a 6 inches (diagonal) 4-level grayscale display, with 250 MB of internal memory, which can hold approximately 200 non-illustrated titles.[14] It also has a speaker and headphone jack that allows the user to access audio files on Kindle.[15]

The device’s Whispernet feature was co-designed with Qualcomm, and Kindle was the first device to include free nationwide 3G access to download books from the Amazon web store. Amazon did not sell the first-generation Kindle outside the United States.[14] Plans for a launch in the UK and other European countries were delayed by problems with signing up suitable wireless network operators.[16]

On February 10, 2009, Amazon announced the Kindle 2.[17] It became available for purchase on February 23, 2009. The Kindle 2 features a text-to-speech option to read the text aloud, and 2 GB of internal memory of which 1.4 GB is user-accessible. By Amazon’s estimates, the Kindle 2 can hold about 1,500 non-illustrated books. Unlike the first-generation Kindle, Kindle 2 does not have a slot for SD memory cards.[18] It was slimmer than the original Kindle.[19][20][21]

To promote the new Kindle, author Stephen King made UR, his then-new novella, available exclusively through the Kindle Store.[22]

According to an early review by iFixIt, the Kindle 2 features a Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-11 90 nm processor, 32 MB main memory, 2 GB moviNAND flash memory and a 3.7 V 1,530 mAh lithium polymer battery.[23]

On July 8, 2009, Amazon reduced price of the Kindle 2 from the original $359 to $299. On October 7, 2009, Amazon further reduced the price of the Kindle 2 to $259.[24] The Kindle 2 had a manufacturing materials cost estimated at $185.49, in 2009 by iSuppli.[25]

On October 22, 2009, Amazon stopped selling the original Kindle 2 in favor of the international version it had introduced earlier in the month. On November 24, 2009, Amazon released a firmware update for the Kindle 2 that it said increased battery life by 85% and introduced native PDF support.[26]

On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 with the ability to download new titles in over 100 countries. It became available October 19, 2009. The international Kindle 2 is physically very similar to the U.S.-only model, although it uses a different mobile network standard.

The original Kindle 2 used CDMA2000 for use on the Sprint network. The international version used standard GSM and 3G GSM, enabling it to be used on AT&T’s U.S. mobile network and internationally in 100 other countries.[27]

The international version of the Kindle 2 is believed to have a noticeably higher contrast screen, although Amazon does not advertise this.[28] Another review done by Gadget lab,[29] disputes this and actually states that the font appears to be fuzzier than that of the first generation kindle. The review goes on to say that changes to the Kindle 2 have made it tougher to read the smaller font sizes that most books use. Writers on another website[30] discuss how the font size is at times worse than that of the first-generation Kindle. It appears that whether the Kindle 2 is clearer or fuzzier than the prior model depends on the font size. These issues became moot when Amazon sourced a higher contrast E Ink technology it dubbed “E Ink Pearl” and which it used in all of its e-reader devices thereafter.

On October 22, 2009, Amazon lowered the price on the international version from $279 to $259 and discontinued the U.S.-only model. On June 21, 2010, hours after Barnes & Noble lowered the price of its Nook, Amazon lowered the price of the Kindle 2 to $189.

Amazon announced the Kindle DX on May 6, 2009. This device has a larger screen than the standard Kindle and supports simple PDF files. It was also the thinnest Kindle to date and offers an accelerometer, which enables the user to seamlessly rotate pages between landscape and portrait orientations when the Kindle DX is turned on its side.[31] It is marketed as more suitable for displaying newspaper and textbook content.[32] The device can only connect to Whispernet in the United States. It can be distinguished from the later International version by a serial number starting with “B004”.[33]

Since January 19, 2010, the Kindle DX International has shipped in 100 countries.[34] The Kindle DX comes with a 9.7-inch E Ink screen instead of the 6-inch Kindle screen. It has support for international 3G wireless, and its serial number will start with “B005”.[33]

On July 1, 2010, Amazon released the Kindle DX Graphite, a revision of the DX. As well as dropping the price from $489 to $379, the new Kindle DX has an E Ink display with 50% better contrast ratio (due to new E Ink Pearl technology) and comes only in a “graphite” case color. It is speculated the case color change is to improve contrast ratio perception further, as some users found the prior white casing highlighted that the E Ink background is light gray and not white. Like the prior Kindle DX, it does not have a Wi-Fi connection.[35] Its serial numbers start with “B009”.[33] The DX Graphite (DXG) is a mix of third-generation hardware and second-generation software. The CPU is of the same speed as Kindle 3 but is of a different revision. Even though DX Graphite has a larger case, it has only a half the system memory (128MB) of the Kindle 3 (256 MB). Due to these hardware differences, the DX Graphite runs the same firmware as Kindle 2. Therefore, DX Graphite cannot display international fonts (such as the Cyrillic font, Chinese, or any other non-Latin font), and PDF and the web browser are limited to Kindle 2 features. The Kindle DX was withdrawn from sale in October 2012, but in September 2013 was made available again in the US and internationally, with the 3G data free to access the Kindle Store and Wikipedia. Loading personal documents by USB is free, but sending them via 3G is about $1 per megabyte in Ireland. It has battery life of about one week with 3G and two to three weeks with wireless off. It does not have WiFi capabilities. Text to Speech and MP3 playback are supported.

Amazon announced the third generation of the Kindle, later called the Kindle Keyboard, on July 28, 2010.[36] While Amazon does not officially add numbers to the end of each Kindle denoting its generation, reviewers, customers and press companies often refer to this updated Kindle as the “K3” or the “Kindle 3”.[37][38][39] The third generation Kindle had a 6 inches (15 cm) screen with a resolution of 600×800 (167 PPI).[40]

The Kindle Keyboard is available in two versions. One of these, the Kindle Wi-Fi, was initially priced at $139 / GB£111 and connects to the Internet exclusively via Wi-Fi networks.[36] The other version, considered a replacement to the Kindle 2, was priced at $189 / £152 and includes both 3G and Wi-Fi connectivity.[36] (currently unavailable in UK [41]) The built-in free 3G connectivity uses the same wireless signals that cell phones use, allowing it to download and purchase content from any location with cell service.[36] The Kindle Keyboard with 3G is available in two colors: classic white and graphite. Both models use the newer E Ink “Pearl” display, which has a higher contrast than prior displays and a faster refresh rate. However, it remains slower than traditional LCDs.[42]

The Kindle Keyboard uses a Freescale i. MX353 applications processor, Freescale MC13892 power management chip, Epson E INK controller, and Samsung DRAM and flash. Other hardware changes include a larger 1,750 mAh lithium-ion polymer battery, AnyDATA DTP-600W 3G GSM modem, and Atheros AR6102G 802.11bg Wi-Fi chip.

The third-generation Kindle is 0.5 in shorter and 0.5 in narrower than the Kindle 2. It supports additional fonts and international Unicode characters and has a Voice Guide feature with spoken menu navigation. Experimental features include a browser based on the popular WebKit rendering engine (but browser may be limited to 50MB of 3G per month to web sites other than Amazon and Wikipedia in territories outside of the United States),[43] Text-to-Speech that can read aloud the text from books and other content, and an MP3 player. Internal memory is expanded to 4 GB, with approximately 3 GB available for user content. Battery life is advertised at up to two months of reading half an hour a day on a single charge with the wireless turned off, which amounts to roughly 30 hours.[36]

Amazon began accepting pre-orders for the new Kindle as soon as it was announced and began shipping the devices on August 27, 2010, in the United States and United Kingdom. With the announcement of the Kindle Keyboard, Amazon also launched an Amazon.co.uk version of the Kindle store. On August 25, 2010, Amazon announced that the Kindle 3 was the fastest-selling Kindle ever.[44]

In late January 2011, Amazon announced that digital books were outselling their traditional print counterparts for the first time ever on its site, with an average of 115 Kindle editions being sold for every 100 paperback editions.[45]

An ad-supported version, the “Kindle with Special Offers” was introduced on May 3, 2011, with a price reduction of $25 less at $114. On July 13, 2011, Amazon announced that due to a sponsorship agreement with AT&T, the price of the Kindle 3G with Special Offers would be lowered to $139, $50 less than the Kindle 3G.[46] With the 2011 Kindle announcement, the price of the “Kindle Keyboard with Special Offers” was reduced to $99.

The Kindle Keyboard generally received good reviews after launch. In their Kindle Keyboard Review, Review Horizon[47] describes it as offering “the best reading experience in its class” while Engadget[48] states, “In the standalone category, the Kindle is probably the one to beat”.

After the introduction of the low priced Kindle version, and Kindle Touch and Kindle Fire readers in September 2011 Amazon began describing the older Kindle version as the ‘Kindle Keyboard’ instead of the Kindle 3. At the time, 3G is not available for all countries.

Amazon announced the fourth-generation Kindle on September 28, 2011 ($79 ad-supported, $109 no ads). Retaining the 6 inch e-ink display of the previous Kindle model as well as Amazon’s experimental web-browsing capability with Wi-Fi, the fourth-generation Kindle features a slight reduction in weight and size[49] in a silver-grey bezel, as well as nine hard keys, a cursor pad, an on-screen rather than physical keyboard, a flash storage capacity of 2 GB, and an estimated one month battery life.[50][51]

Amazon announced a touchscreen Kindle, called the Kindle Touch, on September 28, 2011, available with Wi-Fi ($99 ad-supported, $139 no ads) or Wi-Fi/3G connectivity ($149 ad-supported, $189 no ads). Via 3G the device is able to connect to the Kindle Store, download books and periodicals, and access Wikipedia. Experimental web browsing (outside of Wikipedia) on Kindle Touch 3G is only available over Wi-Fi.[52] (Kindle Keyboard continues without this restriction). The usage of the 3G data is limited to 50MB per month.[53] The device uses the same 6 inch E-ink screen of the previous Kindle model, with the addition of an infrared touch-screen control.[49] Like its predecessor, the Kindle Touch has a capacity of 4 GB and battery life of two months.[54] The Kindle Touch began to ship on November 15, 2011 (U.S. only).[55] Amazon announced in March 2012 that the device would be available in the UK, Germany, France, Spain and Italy on April 27, 2012.[56] In January 2013, Amazon released the 5.2.0 firmware that updated the operating system to match the Paperwhite’s interface with the Touch’s MP3/audiobook capabilities remaining.

Amazon announced a new version of the regular Kindle and the Kindle Paperwhite on September 6, 2012. The Kindle 5 was released on September 6 ($69 ad-supported, $89 no ads). The Kindle has a black bezel (compared to the Kindle 4, which was available in silver-grey), better contrast, and hand-tuned fonts. It is claimed to have 15% faster page loads. It has a 167 PPI display and is the lightest Kindle at 5.98 oz (170 g).

The Kindle Paperwhite (1st generation) was released on October 1, 2012 in the United States. It has a 6 in, 212 PPI display (an almost-XGA resolution of 758×1024) with built-in LEDs to illuminate the screen, and has 2GB of storage (1.25GB usable). It was available in Wi-Fi ($119 ad-supported, $139 no ads) and Wi-Fi + 3G ($179 ad-supported, $199 no ads) models,[57] with the ad-supported options only available in the United States.[58] The light is one of the main features of the Paperwhite, but the light level must be adjusted manually. The 3G access restrictions are the same as the Kindle Touch, and usage of the 3G data is limited to 50 MB per month. Additional data can be purchased.[53] Battery life is advertised at up to eight weeks of reading with half an hour per day with wireless off and constant light usage; this usage equals 28 hours.[59] It includes the experimental web browser with the same 3G data restrictions as the Kindle Touch. The official leather cover for the Paperwhite uses the hall effect sensor in the device that detects when the cover is closed/opened to turn the screen off/on respectively. This device was the first Kindle to track one’s reading speed to estimate when one will finish a chapter or book; this feature was later included with updates to the other Kindles and Kindle Fire tablets.

The Kindle Paperwhite lacks physical buttons for page turning and does not do auto-hyphenation. Except for the lock-screen/power button at its bottom, it relies solely on the touchscreen interface.[60] Shortly after release, some users complained about the lighting implementation on the Kindle Paperwhite.[61] While not widespread, some users found the lighting to be inconsistent, causing the bottom edge to cast irregular shadows. Also, some users complained that the light can only be dimmed, not turned off completely.[62] In November 2012, Amazon released the 5.3.0 update that allowed users to turn off recommended content on the home screen in Grid View (allowing two rows of user content) and included general bug fixes. In March 2014, the Paperwhite 5.4.4 update was released that added Goodreads integration, Kindle FreeTime to restrict usage for children, Cloud Collections for organization and Page Flip for scanning content without losing your place.[63]

The Kindle Paperwhite was released in most major international markets in early 2013, with Japan’s version including 4GB of storage, and in China on June 7, 2013.[64]

Amazon announced the Kindle Paperwhite (2nd generation), marketed as the “All-New Kindle Paperwhite” and colloquially referred to as the Paperwhite 2, on September 3, 2013; the Wi-Fi version was released in the USA on September 30, 2013 ($119 ad-supported, $139 no ads), and the 3G/Wi-Fi version was released in the USA on November 5, 2013 ($189 ad-supported, $209 no ads).

The Paperwhite 2 features a higher contrast E Ink Carta display technology,[65] improved LED illumination, 25% faster processor (1 GHz) that allows for faster page turns, and better response to touch input compared to the original Paperwhite. It has the same 6″ screen with 212 PPI and bezel as the original Paperwhite. The software features dictionary/Wikipedia/X-Ray look-up, Page Flip that allows the user to skip ahead or back in the text in a pop-up window and go back to the previous page, and Goodreads social integration.[66]

The Paperwhite 2 uses the same experimental web browser with the same 3G data usage restrictions as previous Kindles; there are no usage restrictions when using Wi-Fi. The official leather cover for the Paperwhite 2 is the same item as was used for the original Paperwhite. It turns the screen on or off when it is opened or closed.

Engadget gave the Paperwhite 2 a 93 out of 100, saying while the “all-new” Paperwhite does not offer many new features compared to the original Paperwhite, the improved frontlight and software functions make a great reading experience even better.[67]

Amazon announced Kindle Fire, an Android-based tablet that uses a fork of Android called Fire OS 1 on September 28, 2011. It was released for $199 and has a 7 in IPS color touchscreen display. This was the first Kindle without an E Ink display. However, unlike previously released Kindles, it has no 3G option, but only Wi-Fi. It has 8 GB of storage and a projected battery life of up to eight hours.[68] In September 2012, the Kindle Fire was refreshed to have more RAM, a faster processor, an updated OS, and price reduced to $159.[69]

The Kindle Fire HD, announced on September 6, 2012, is the second generation of Amazon’s color touchscreen Kindle Fire tablet line. It is available in two form factors, 7 in and 8.9 in screen sizes. Introductory pricing was at $199 and $299, respectively for the 16 GB versions; both Fire HD were sold at cost.[70] The 7 in version was released on September 14, while the 8.9 in model (with either Wi-Fi or 4G model) was released on November 20, 2012. In October 2013, the Fire HD 7 in was refreshed using the Fire HDX unibody and had its price reduced to $139.[71]

The Kindle Fire HDX, announced on September 25, 2013, is the third generation of Amazon’s Kindle Fire tablet line. It is available in 7 in and 8.9 in screen sizes, with introductory prices of $229 and $379, respectively, for the 16 GB version with special offers. Both tablets are also available in 32 and 64 GB versions.[72]

Amazon released a “Kindle for PC” application in late 2009, available as a free download for Microsoft Windows 8, 7, Vista, and XP.[73] This application allows thousands of books to be read on a personal computer in color, with no Kindle unit required, as e-books can simply be purchased from Amazon’s store.[74] Amazon later released a version for the Apple Macintosh, in early 2010.[75] In June 2010, Amazon released a “Kindle for Android” version. With the Google Android application release, versions for the Apple iPhone, the iPad, Windows and Mac computers, and BlackBerry cellphones are also available.[76] In January 2011, Amazon released Kindle for MS Windows Phone 7.[77] In July 2011, Kindle for HP TouchPad (running under webOS) was released in the US as a beta version.[78] In August 2011, Amazon released an HTML5 based webapp supporting the Chrome, Firefox and Safari browsers called Kindle Cloud Reader.[79] As 2013, Amazon has expressed no interest in releasing a separate application for the GNU/Linux operating system, however the Cloud Reader can be used in Linux using the browser.[80]

On April 17, 2014, Samsung announced it would discontinue its ebook store effective July 1, 2014 and would partner with Amazon for the Kindle for Samsung app, which will permit Samsung Galaxy users using Android 4.0 or higher use Amazon’s catalog, and added free book service, Samsung Book Deals, that will allow users of the app to choose one free ebook monthly from a selection provided by Amazon.[81]

Specific Kindle sales numbers are not released by the company; however, Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of Amazon.com, stated in a shareholders’ meeting in January 2010 that “millions of people now own Kindles”.[82] According to anonymous inside sources, over three million Kindles had been sold as of December 2009,[83] while external estimates, as of Q4-2009, place the number at about 1.5 million.[84] According to James McQuivey of Forrester Research, estimates are ranging around four million, as of mid-2010.[85] On March 6, 2011, AT&T stores officially started sales of the Amazon Kindle. [86]

In 2010, Amazon remained the undisputed leader in the e-reader category, accounting for 59% of e-readers shipped, and it gained 14 percentage points in share.[87] According to an International Data Corporation (IDC) study from March 2011, sales for all e-book readers worldwide reached 12.8 million in 2010; 48% of them were Kindles.[88]

In December 2011, Amazon announced that customers had purchased “well over” one million Kindles per week since the end of November 2011; this includes all available Kindle models and also the Kindle Fire tablet.[89] IDC estimated that the Kindle Fire sold about 4.7 million units during the fourth quarter of 2011.[90] Pacific Crest estimated that the Kindle Fire models sold six million units during Q4 2012.[91]

Morgan Stanley estimates that Amazon sold $3.57 billion worth of Kindle e-readers and tablets in 2012, $4.5 billion in Kindle device sales in 2013 and $5 billion in Kindle device sales in 2014.[92]

Content from Amazon and some other content providers is primarily encoded in Amazon’s proprietary Kindle format (AZW, KF8). It is also possible to load content in various formats from a computer by transferring it to the Kindle via a USB cable or by emailing it to a registered email address provided by Amazon (for a fee via 3G, or free via Wi-Fi); the email service can convert a number of document formats to Amazon’s AZW format and then transmit the result to the associated Kindle over Whispernet. Amazon also has an application and browser extension called “Send to Kindle,” which users can use to convert a web page to a format that can be read on Kindle. In addition to published content, Kindle users can also access the Internet using the experimental web browser, which uses NetFront.[93][94]

The Kindle’s terms of use forbid transferring Amazon e-books to another user or a different type of device.[95] However, Amazon now allows limited lending of certain titles.[96] Users can select reading material using the Kindle itself or through a computer at the Amazon Kindle store and can download content through the Kindle Store, which upon the initial launch of the Kindle had more than 88,000 digital titles available for download. This number continued steadily increasing to more than 275,000 by late 2008, and exceeded 500,000 in the spring of 2010. As of July 4, 2011, there were more than 765,000 books available for download,[97] about 36,000 of them in German.[98] As of July 2014, there are over 2.7 million titles available for at the Kindle Store.[99]

In late 2007, new releases and New York Times best sellers were being offered for approximately $11, with first chapters of many books offered as free samples. Many titles, including some classics, are offered free of charge or at a low price, which has been stated to relate to the cost of adapting the book to the Kindle format. Magazines, newspapers and blogs via RSS are provided by Amazon per a monthly subscription fee or a free trial period. Newspaper subscriptions cost from $1.99 to $27.99 per month; magazines charge between $1.25 and $10.99 per month, and blogs charge from $0.99 to $1.99 per month.[100] Amazon e-book sales overtook print for one day for the first time on Christmas Day of 2009.[101]

International users of Kindle pay different prices for books depending on their registered countries. For U.S. customers traveling abroad, Amazon originally charged a $1.99 fee to download books over 3G while overseas. That charge was quietly dropped in May 2010.[citation needed] Fees remain for wireless delivery of periodical subscriptions and personal documents.

In addition to the Kindle store, paid content for the Kindle can be purchased from various independent sources such as Fictionwise, Mobipocket, and Baen Ebooks. Public domain titles are also obtainable for the Kindle via content providers such as Project Gutenberg, The Internet Archive, Retroread, and World Public Library. In 2011, the Kindle store had more than twice as much paid content as its nearest competitor, Barnes and Noble.[102]

Public libraries that offer books via OverDrive, Inc. also loan titles for the Kindle and Kindle reading apps. Books are checked out from the library’s own site, which forwards to Amazon for the completion of the checkout process. Amazon then delivers the title to the Kindle for the duration of the loan, though some titles may require transfer via a USB connection to a computer. If the book is later checked out again or purchased, annotations and bookmarks are preserved.[103]

The device is sold with electronic editions of its owner’s manual; the U.S. version also includes the New Oxford American Dictionary and the UK version, the Oxford Dictionary of English (not to be confused with the Oxford English Dictionary). Users can purchase different dictionaries from the Kindle store as specified in the included manual.[104][105]

As a member of Amazon Prime, access to the “Kindle Owners’ Lending Library” is given that allows Kindle-owning members to borrow one free ebook, from over 500,000 titles, per calendar month.[106] In July 2014, Amazon added a Kindle Unlimited subscription, which allows unlimited access to over 638,000 titles and 7,000 audiobooks for a monthly fee.[107][108]

Operating system updates are designed to be received wirelessly and installed automatically during a period in sleep mode in which Wi-Fi is turned on.[109] Kindles are charged using either a computer’s USB port or an AC adapter. The Kindle also contains experimental features such a basic web browser.[110] Users can also play MP3 music in the background, if the device supports MP3 playback.

Kindle devices do not support the EPUB file format used by many other e-book readers. Instead, they are designed to use Amazon’s own e-book formats: AZW, and, in fourth generation and later Kindles, AZW3, also called KF8.[111] Like EPUB, these formats are intended for reflowable, richly formatted e-book content and support DRM restrictions, but unlike EPUB, they are proprietary formats. Free software such as the free and open source calibre, Amazon’s KindleGen,[112] and the email based Send-to-Kindle service are available to convert e-books into these formats. Kindle devices can also display some generic document formats such as plain text (TXT) and Portable Document Format (PDF) files, however reflowing is not supported for these file types. Instead text size may be increased or decreased on the screen by zooming, which means one has to scroll right to read the end of a line and back left to start reading the next line and so on. This may be avoided by converting the PDF file to MOBI format using calibre e-book management software.

The first Kindle devices used the AZW e-book format, which is identical to the Mobipocket (MOBI) format for files that are not DRM-restricted.

The Kindle Fire introduced the “Kindle Format 8” (KF8), better known as AZW3.[113] AZW3 supports a subset of HTML5 and CSS3 features,[114] while also acting as a container for a backwards-compatible MOBI content document.[115][116]

The first-generation Kindle can read only unprotected Mobipocket files (MOBI, PRC), plain text files (TXT), Topaz format books (TPZ), and Amazon’s AZW format.

The Kindle 2 added native PDF capability with the version 2.3 firmware upgrade.[26] Earlier versions could not generally read PDF files, but Amazon provided “experimental” conversion to the native AZW format,[117] with the caveat that not all PDFs may format correctly.[118] The Kindle 2 added the ability to play the Audible Enhanced (AAX) format, but dropped the ability to read Audible versions 2 and 3. The Kindle 2 can also display HTML files stored on the unit.

The fourth/fifth generation Kindles, Kindle Touch, and Kindle Paperwhite (1st and 2nd generation) can display AZW, AZW3, TXT, PDF, unprotected MOBI, and PRC files natively. HTML, DOC, DOCX, JPEG, GIF, PNG, and BMP are usable through conversion. The Touch and Touch 3G can also play Audible Enhanced (AA, AAX) and MP3 files.[119] Amazon added in 2012 an update to the fourth generation Kindles to support the AZW3 format.[120]

Amazon offers an email-based service that will convert GIF, PNG, and BMP graphics to AZW.[121] Amazon will also convert HTML pages and Microsoft Word (DOC or DOCX) documents through the same email-based mechanism, which will send a Kindle-formatted file to the device via 3G for $0.15 per MB or via Wi-Fi for free. In addition, this service can send unprotected Mobi files to a user’s Kindle. These services can be accessed by Kindle devices, iOS devices running Kindle app version 2.9 or greater, and Android devices running Kindle app version 3.5 or greater.[122]

A book may be downloaded from Amazon to several devices at the same time. The devices sharing the book must be registered to the same Amazon account. A sharing limit typically ranges from one to six devices, depending on an undisclosed number of licenses set by the book publisher. When a limit is reached, the user must remove the book from some device[123] or unregister a device containing the book[124] in order to add a book to another device.

The original Kindle and Kindle 2 did not allow the user to organize books into folders. The user could only select what type of content to display on the home screen and whether to organize by author, title, or download date. Kindle software version 2.5 (released July 2010) allowed for the organization of books into “Collections” which behave like non-structured tags/labels: a collection can not include other collections, and one book may be added to multiple collections. These collections are normally set and organized on the Kindle itself, one book at a time. The set of all collections of a first Kindle device can be imported to a second Kindle device that is connected to the cloud and is registered to the same user; as the result of this operation, the documents that are on the second device now become organized according to the first device’s collections. calibre had a plugin that made it possible to organize these collections on a computer, but this plugin no longer functions on newer models (Kindle Touch and Kindle Fire). There remains no option to organize by series or series order, as the AZW format does not possess the necessary metadata fields.

Users can bookmark, highlight, and search through content. Pages can be bookmarked for reference, and notes can be added to relevant content. While a book is open on the display, menu options allow users to search for synonyms and definitions from the built-in dictionary. The device also remembers the last page read for each book. Pages can be saved as a “clipping”, or a text file containing the text of the currently displayed page. All clippings are appended to a single file, which can be downloaded over a USB cable.[125] Due to the TXT format of the clippings file, all formatting (such as bold, italics, bigger fonts for headlines, etc.) is stripped off the original text.

On July 18, 2011, Amazon began a program that allows college students to rent Kindle textbooks from three different publishers for a fixed period of time.[126]

On January 21, 2010, Amazon announced the forthcoming release of its Kindle Development Kit.[127] It aims to allow developers to build ‘active content’ for the Kindle, and a beta version was announced with a February 2010 release date. A number of companies have already experimented with delivering active content through the Kindle’s bundled browser, and the KDK promises ‘sample code, documentation and the Kindle Simulator’ together with a new revenue sharing model for developers.[128]

The KDK is based on the Java programming language, specifically, the Personal Basis Profile 1.1.2 (JSR 217) flavor of packaged Java APIs.

As of March 2012 Kindle store offers over 200 items labeled as active content.[129] These items include simple applications and games, including a free set provided by Amazon Digital Services.[130] As of 2012, the active content is only available in the US (or users with a US billing address).

Concurrently with the Kindle device, Amazon launched Kindle Direct Publishing, where authors and publishers independently publish their books directly to Kindle and Kindle Apps worldwide. In open beta testing as of late 2007, the platform has been promoted to established authors by an e-mail[131] and by advertisements at Amazon.com. Authors can upload documents in several formats for delivery via Whispernet and charge between $0.99 and $200.00 per download.[131] These documents may be written in 34 languages.[132]

In a December 5, 2009 interview with The New York Times, CEO Jeff Bezos revealed that Amazon.com keeps 65% of the revenue from all ebook sales for the Kindle.[133] The remaining 35% is split between the book author and publisher. After numerous commentators observed that Apple’s popular App Store offers 70% of royalties to the publisher, Amazon began a program that offers 70% royalties to Kindle publishers who agree to certain conditions.[134] Some of these conditions, such as the inability to opt out of the lendability feature, have caused some controversy.[135]

Other criticisms involve the business model behind Amazon’s implementation and distribution of e-books.[136][137] Amazon introduced a software application allowing Kindle books to be read on an iPhone or iPod Touch.[138] Amazon soon followed with an application called “Kindle for PCs” that can be run on a Windows PC. Due to the book publishers’ DRM policies, Amazon claims that there is no right of first sale with e-books. Amazon states they are licensed, not purchased; so unlike paper books, buyers do not actually own their e-books according to Amazon. This has, however, never been tested in court, and the outcome of any action by Amazon is uncertain. The law is in a state of flux in jurisdictions around the world.[139][140]

Amazon has reported the Kindle version of Fifty Shades of Grey sold more than double that of Amazon’s print sales of the book, and, in June 2012, the Kindle edition became the first to sell more than one million copies.[141]

Blogs published by popular media outlets such as TechCrunch and Ars Technica have been available on Kindle as early as 2008. In May 2009, the program was opened to everyone.[142]

Amazon, not the publisher, sets the monthly subscription rate for each blog between $0.99 – $1.99. Since the blogs may contain pictures, and wireless 3G access requires no monthly subscription fee, Amazon retains 70% of the revenue from blog sales, remitting 30% to the content publisher.

As of July 2014, the program status is listed as beta.[143]

Kindle devices may report information about their users’ reading habits “such as up-time [and] last page read” to Amazon.[144] The exact data collected and sent is unclear, though.[145]

On July 17, 2009, Amazon.com withdrew certain Kindle titles, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell, from sale, refunded the cost to those who had purchased them, and remotely deleted these titles from purchasers’ devices after discovering that the publisher lacked rights to publish the titles in question.[146] Notes and annotations for the books made by users on their devices were left in a separate file, but “rendered useless” without the content to which they were directly linked.[147][148] The move prompted outcry and comparisons to Nineteen Eighty-Four itself. In the novel, books, magazines and newspapers in public archives that contradict the ruling party are either edited long after being published or destroyed outright; the removed materials go “down the memory hole”, the nickname for an incinerator chute.[149] Customers and commentators noted the resemblance to the censorship in the novel, and described Amazon’s action in Orwellian terms. Some critics also argued that the deletion violated the Kindle’s Terms of Service, which states in part:[150]

Upon your payment of the applicable fees set by Amazon, Amazon grants you the non-exclusive right to keep a permanent copy of the applicable Digital Content and to view, use and display such Digital Content an unlimited number of times, solely on the Device or as authorized by Amazon as part of the Service and solely for your personal, non-commercial use.

Amazon spokesman Drew Herdener stated that the company is “… changing our systems so that in the future we will not remove books from customers’ devices in these circumstances.”[151] On July 23, 2009, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos posted an apology about the company’s handling of the matter on Amazon’s official Kindle forum. Bezos said the action was “stupid”, and that the executives at Amazon “deserve the criticism received.”[152]

On July 30, 2009, Justin Gawronski, a Michigan high school senior, and Antoine Bruguier, a California engineer, filed suit against Amazon in the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington. Gawronski argued that Amazon had violated its terms of service by remotely deleting the copy of Nineteen Eighty-Four he had purchased, in the process preventing him from accessing annotations he had written. Bruguier also had his copy deleted without his consent, and found Amazon practiced “deceit” in an email exchange. The complaint, which requested class-action status, asked for both monetary and injunctive relief.[148][153] The case was settled on September 25, 2009, with Amazon agreeing to pay $150,000 divided between the two plaintiffs, on the understanding that the law firm representing them, Kamber Edelson LLC, “…will donate its portion of that fee to a charitable organization…”.[154] The settlement also saw Amazon guaranteeing wider rights to Kindle owners over its e-books:

For copies of Works purchased pursuant to TOS granting “the non-exclusive right to keep a permanent copy” of each purchased Work and to “view, use and display [such Works] an unlimited number of times, solely on the [Devices]… and solely for [the purchasers’] personal, non-commercial use”, Amazon will not remotely delete or modify such Works from Devices purchased and being used in the United States unless (a) the user consents to such deletion or modification; (b) the user requests a refund for the Work or otherwise fails to pay for the Work (e.g., if a credit or debit card issuer declines to remit payment); (c) a judicial or regulatory order requires such deletion or modification; or (d) deletion or modification is reasonably necessary to protect the consumer or the operation of a Device or network through which the Device communicates (e.g., to remove harmful code embedded within a copy of a Work downloaded to a Device).[155]

On September 4, 2009, Amazon offered affected users a restoration of the deleted e-books, an Amazon gift certificate, or a check for the amount of $30.[156]

In December 2010, three e-books by author Selena Kitt were removed due to violations of Amazon’s publishing guidelines. For what Amazon describes as “a brief period of time,” the books were unavailable for redownload by users who had already purchased them. This ability was restored after it was brought to Amazon’s attention; however, no remote deletion took place.[157]

In October 2012, Amazon deleted every book that Linn Nygaard, an IT consultant living in Norway, had purchased, and canceled her Amazon account. Amazon claimed that she had violated their terms of service, but was not specific as to what she had done wrong. The next day Amazon restored her account and books.[158][159][160][161][162]

Save Money On Affordable Edinburgh Hotels

Submitted by: City Seeker.

Are you taking a break in Edinburgh City as you journey the world, or are you visiting as a tourist? Whatever reason you have for making a stopover in Scotland?s royal capital city, you have no reason at all to fret about spending a night or two at any of the Edinburgh hotels.

Are you taking a break in Edinburgh City as you journey the world, or are you visiting as a tourist? Whatever reason you have for making a stopover in Scotland?s royal capital city, you have no reason at all to fret about spending a night or two at any of the Edinburgh hotels.

There are quite a number of cheap hotels in Edinburgh that would suit a regular itinerant. Most of these Edinburgh cheap hotels are situated within the city. For your convenience, most of these Edinburgh hotels also operate vehicles such as shuttle services and taxis to and from the main airport.

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It should also be noted that these Edinburgh cheap hotels are at a proximal distance to train and bus termini, making them ideal for all and sundry. The hospitable Edinburgh hotels accommodations can be arranged through your travel agent, and thus locating any of the Edinburgh cheap hotels should not be much of a hassle.

These Edinburgh cheap hotels charge reasonably low rates, as they are trying to cash in on low end clients. This should not bother you and get you thinking that they are low quality hotels though. The charges of bed and breakfast vary between the different Edinburgh hotels. With some of these being situated right at the heart of the great city, guests are allowed splendid views of the city?s landmarks because, as you know, Edinburgh is a small and hilly city. This means that guests are able to view quite a lot from the comfort of their rooms in any of the Edinburgh hotels.

Wondering about your accommodations? In case you are considering staying at Edinburgh cheap hotels for a lengthy duration, their proximity to the train stations will be most convenient for commuting. Getting to the train station should not cost you an extra dime since the Edinburgh hotels are a walking distance away. Cycling to the station is also excellent exercise, and you will not feel alone at all as many of the city residents do so.

The nature of your visit dictates the Edinburgh hotels you are probably going to be staying in. Travel agents should be able to give you any information regarding your rounds within the city, and they are better placed to advise you in which of the Edinburgh cheap hotels you are likely to be comfortably situated in.

Apart from the peak season, quite a number of hotels in Edinburgh require no reservation. Simply present yourself at the reception and book. Inquire for their packages before making the booking because it would hurt to realize that the Edinburgh cheap hotels had something you wanted, but you did not get because you never asked. This could even ruin your stay in the Edinburgh hotels.

Online booking services are also available because of the level of technology Edinburgh hotels have achieved. By them being Edinburgh cheap hotels does not necessarily mean they are backward. They may be cheap but offer near 5-star amenities. Visit their websites and find out how you do your online booking together with mode and terms of payment.

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The Rising Prevalence Of Eating Disorders In Today’s Society

Submitted by: R McCormick.

Open a magazine or watch any commercial and pictures of thin women and men are presented as the norm in today’s society, especially from the perspective of Madison Avenue.

Open a magazine or watch any commercial and pictures of thin women and men are presented as the norm in today’s society, especially from the perspective of Madison Avenue. However, the average man or woman simply doesn’t fit this image. Women are more likely to wear a size 14, than a size two. However, many men and women, and a growing number of children and teens, still strive to fit this fabricated ideal. It is little surprise that the number of men, women, teens and children diagnosed with eating disorders is on the rise, and has been rising for the past four decades. Learning more about anorexia, bulimia and binge-eating disorder can help more people understand the seriousness of these eating disorders and seek treatment for them.

Anorexia nervosa

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Anorexia nervosa is sometimes referred to as the starvation disease because men and women affected by anorexia severely restrict the amount of food they will consume. They may measure their portions carefully and may only eat certain foods. Generally, people affected by anorexia are fixated by the amount they weigh and will likely check the scale several times a day. Even as they drop below a healthy weight, they continue to view themselves as overweight or chubby. They may also suffer from a poor self-image which affects their ability to nurture themselves physically or emotionally. The physical effects of anorexia can be devastating. More people die from anorexia than any other mental illness.

Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is very different from anorexia. Men and women affected by bulimia nervosa go through recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food. This usually occurs frequently and is then met by guilty emotions about their lack of control. As a means of regaining control, a person affected by bulimia would typically pressure themselves to vomit, or be driven to exercise excessively, or take laxatives to purge themselves of this binge-eating. Even occasional purging can be damaging to a person?s body, resulting in serious medical issues and complications.

Binge-eating disorde

Binge-eating disorder is in some ways similar to bulimia. The biggest difference between these two disorders, is that in contrast to a person affected by bulimia, a person affected by binge-eating disorder does not try to rid themselves of the food they consumed during a binge. Maintaining a healthy weight is difficult and if perceived as being overweight, may drive a cycle of guilt-induced binge-eating. The health effects related to binge-eating disorder include heart problems and high blood pressure.

While every person is different, the route of treating all three of these eating disorders starts off with an evaluation by a specialist who is trained to treat eating disorders. But for lasting change to occur, the person must be willing to receive help and remain focused on recovering from their eating disorder and other co-occurring disorders, including depression or severe anxiety. A major component in treating all three of these disorders is psychotherapy and counseling, which tackle the thoughts behind a person’s disordered behaviors.

Although eating disorders are more prevalent in our society than they used to be, it doesn’t have to stay that way. By becoming more educated about the different types of disorders and therapeutic options, people affected by eating disorders can get the help they need before becoming yet another statistic.

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